The nature and landscape of Iran is striking in its contrasts and diversity. Mountain ranges and plateaus occupying 3/4 of the territory, frame in the center the barren Great Salt Desert (Deshte-Kavir) and Deshte-Loot.
In the north, the slopes of the South Caspian lowland, rich in rainfall and partially marshy, adjoin the slopes of Elbrus, where jungle-like forests intertwined with lianas and wild grapes alternate with rice, citrus plantations, tea, tobacco, kenaf. Pheasants, wild boars, roes, deer, leopards and even tigers are found in the forests, and coastal reeds contain flocks of pink flamingos, wild geese and ducks.
In the extreme south of Iran, in the coastal lowland zone, swept by hot winds and dust storms, there are only rare oases with date-groves and thickets of thorny bushes. However, in the west, this lowland includes the fertile plain of Khuzestan - a zone of developed tidal farming. The plain is irrigated by the fast-moving waters of Karuna, the largest and only navigable river in Iran. In the lower reaches of its shores stretched palm groves, gardens, sugar cane plantations. At the mouth of Karuna is one of the centers of the global oil refining industry - the island of Abadan, completely built up with huge factories and berths for the tanker fleet.
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The main natural resources are oil, ore, coal, etc. Minerals. Iran is among the top ten countries in oil reserves in the world. Powerful deposits are located in Southwestern Iran, where drilling rigs and oil refineries are rising in the vicinity of the nomads. The main industries are petrochemical, textile, cement and building materials, food, metallurgy.
Agriculture in Iran is poorly developed, it does not fully provide itself with food. The predominant crops are wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, cotton, and small products. wool, caviar. By the way, Iran is an illegal producer of opium for both the domestic and international markets.
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