The Moscow Kremlin is the oldest nucleus of Moscow and represents a magnificent architectural ensemble, formed over several centuries, and in the constructions of different times the previously existing composition was creatively developed. The architecture of the Kremlin clearly reflected many stages of the historical development of the Russian people and the Russian state, and found a brilliant expression of the characteristic features of the national culture.
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The free arrangement of buildings and the picturesqueness of the whole ensemble are strictly regular. The architectural complex of the Kremlin is formed by temple and palace buildings, beautiful longline Kremlin towers and the dominant pillar of Ivan the Great. The Kremlin with the adjacent Red Square, is the compositional center of Moscow, which is connected with the architecture of the city, its largest architectural ensembles. New buildings, bridges, stone embankments, asphalted areas merged with the Kremlin into a single architectural whole.
The Kremlin arose on a high Borovitsky cape, well protected by the rivers Moscow and Neglinnoy from attacks by enemies. This place long before the rise of the Kremlin was inhabited by the East Slavic tribe of Vyatichi. After the first mention of Moscow in 1147, the chronicle reports the erection in 1156 by Yuri Dolgoruky of the wooden walls of the then small Kremlin, which protected the way to the Vladimir-Suzdal Principality. In the 14th century the rise of Moscow was reflected in the further development of the Kremlin, the political and military defensive center of the Moscow princes. Under Ivan I Kalita, the territory of the Kremlin was expanded, new oak Kremlin walls were built, an original architectural ensemble of the Cathedral Square with stone Uspensky and Arkhangelsk cathedrals, an Ivanovo church "under the bells" (the church of Ivan Lestvichnik) and a wooden palace (all of these buildings stood in their original places , as well as erected in the 15th and 16th centuries, extant buildings of the same name). At Dmitri Donskoi, shortly before the Battle of Kulikovo, in 1367, white stone walls of the Kremlin were built. The center of Russian lands became a powerful fortress. The walls of the Kremlin covered an area almost equal to the area of ??the modern Kremlin.
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