09 июль 2019, Вторник

Geophysical methods used to diagnose wells and formations.
Diagnostic tasks are solved under steady-state and unsteady well operation modes. In the general case, the diagnosis of wells and formations is carried out by the methods of thermometry, flow measurement, moisture measurement, resistivity measurement, density measurement, barometry and noise measurement. Experience shows that thermometry is the most informative method for solving diagnostic problems. However, thermometry (in comparison with other geophysical methods) is also the most complex (methodologically) method.

Thermometry. Allocation of working (outgoing and receiving) layers; identification of behind-the-casing flows from below and above; identification of intracavity flows between the layers; determination of casing, tubing and bottom hole leaks; determination of oil – gas-water inflows; identification of flooded reservoirs; determination of the dynamic level of the fluid and the oil and water divide in the annular space; control of the operation and location of the submersible pump; locating mandrels and bottom of tubing; estimation of fluid flow in the well, evaluation of Rp and Rnas; determination of Tzab and Tpl; control of the perforation of the column, control of hydraulic fracturing.

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Features of thermometry in solving problems
The main parameter that is measured and carries the information load in the thermometry method is temperature. Temperature is an energy parameter of the system, and therefore any change in the system due to a change in the mode of operation of the well, decrease or increase in pressure, flushing, violation of the integrity of the column, etc. leads to a change in temperature (temperature distribution) in the well. The well-reservoir system in this regard is a very sensitive system, since in practice, high-resolution thermometers are used.

Diagnostics is carried out throughout the “life” of the well: during completion, operation and repair. The wells are divided into types (categories) in accordance with the mode of operation, method of operation, design, etc. From the point of view of the methodological features of solving problems of a well, it can be classified as follows: idle, operating, mastered.

Diagnostics of wells at different periods of “life” (completion, operation, repair) has its own characteristics. They boil down to the fact that the solution of the problem is carried out with different modes of operation of the wells and, therefore, with steady-state, quasi-stationary, unsteady and transitional temperature fields in the wells.

The thermal field is inertial: it takes time to disassemble a thermal perturbation in a well, determined by the thermal properties of the system, the duration of the perturbation, and the equipment used. Therefore, the following peculiarity is related to the fact that (when measured) in different periods of the “life” of a well, thermograms may reflect the thermal history of the well. So, during development after drilling, thermal anomalies can be observed associated with drilling, cementing, perforation, etc .; in the repair can be observed anomalies due to operation.

Tasks need to be solved in a long time of working wells with rapidly changing processes associated with the short duration of the well, and in a long time idle wells. Therefore, when developing a research methodology, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities associated with the time factor.

The technology adopted at the enterprises is associated with the use of a compressor. When a fluid inflow is called by the compressor, pressure variables in the well are created. Here we can distinguish the regime associated with repression, and then, after the breakthrough of air, the regime with depression on the reservoir, i.e. a combination of modes of injection and selection. For development in the well pre-lowered tubing through which you can conduct research. The need to solve problems in the intervals covered by tubing arises in injection wells in wells of ESP.

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